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  • B freed Indeed LLC | Unveiling the Mystical Connection: Amanita Muscaria and the Song of SolomonSong of Solomon

    Unveiling the Mystical Connection: Amanita Muscaria in the Song of Solomon The mystical realm of symbolism and spiritual allegory converges as we delve into the fascinating connections between the Amanita muscaria mushroom and the enigmatic Book of Song of Solomon. By weaving together threads of biblical verse and ancient mysticism, this exploration reveals a profound affinity between the revered fungus and sacred texts. The Song of Solomon, in particular, offers a treasure trove of symbolism that resonates with the Amanita muscaria's unique properties and cultural significance, inviting readers to reexamine the mysteries hidden within its pages. As we journey through this mystical tapestry, we will uncover a deeper understanding of the sacred and the sublime, where ancient wisdom converges with modern-day mysticism. Let's embark on an in-depth analysis of each chapter, highlighting relevant verses and possible interpretations. ​ King Solomon, according to biblical accounts, is said to have had 700 wives and 300 concubines (1 Kings 11:3 ). This large number of wives and concubines reflects the wealth and political alliances typical of ancient Near Eastern monarchs rather than solely personal desires for fleshly affection or intimacy. ## Introduction to the Song of Solomon and Amanita Muscaria The *Song of Solomon *, has intrigued scholars and theologians for centuries due to its rich, poetic imagery and enigmatic content. Traditionally interpreted as a dialogue of love between a bride and groom, this interpretation has been challenged by some researchers who propose alternative readings of the text. Among the most controversial interpretations is the idea that the text encodes references to the Amanita muscaria mushroom, and quite possibly the Soma drink, often associated with psychoactive experiences and shamanistic rituals. This interpretation gains additional weight from the work of scholars like John Marco Allegro , whose book *The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross * posits that many biblical texts include hidden references to psychoactive substances. Jack's Herer's work, influenced by Allegro's theories , suggests that the *Song of Solomon * may indeed be a veiled discourse on the Amanita muscaria mushroom rather than a straightforward love song. This hypothesis offers a fascinating perspective on the ancient text and invites a deeper exploration of its meanings. ## Chapter One Analysis: Amanita Muscaria in the Song of Solomon 1. " The Song of Songs, which is Solomon’s " The verse introduces the text as Solomon's song. While traditionally understood as a love song, an alternative interpretation suggests that Solomon's writings may symbolize the Amanita muscaria. The identification of his writings with the mushroom could imply that the song is not merely about human love but rather the mystical and psychoactive experiences associated with the mushroom. ### Verse 1:2 : The Kiss and Intoxication 2. "Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth: for thy love is better than wine." ​ ​ Considering Soma's connection, it's plausible that Solomon's writings in Song of Songs may allude to both Amanita muscaria and Soma. The "kiss" could symbolize both the physical experience of consuming Amanita muscaria and the spiritual union achieved through drinking Soma. This dual interpretation adds depth to our understanding of Solomon's text, suggesting that it may not only describe human love but also mystical experiences facilitated by psychoactive substances. ### Verse 1:3 : The Savor and Anointing Oils 3. "Because of the savour of thy good ointments thy name is as ointment poured forth, therefore do the virgins love thee." ​ ​ ​ This verse can be reinterpreted as a metaphorical description of the sensory experience induced by consuming Amanita muscaria or other psychoactive substances (Soma ). The "savour" of the "good ointments" may symbolize the pleasurable and euphoric sensations associated with these substances, while the "name" being "as ointment poured forth" could represent the mystical and spiritual experiences achieved through their consumption. The mention of "virgins" may refer to those who have not experienced the mystical properties of these substances before, or those who are new to their use. The verse could be seen as an invitation to partake in this sensory experience, which is believed to bring joy and closeness to God. ​ ​ ### Verse 1:4 : The Mushroom’s Realm 4. "Draw me, we will run after thee: the king hath brought me into his chambers: we will be glad and rejoice in thee, we will remember thy love more than wine: the upright love thee." The "king" and "chambers" symbolize the profound and transformative experience provided by the mushroom or Soma drink. The "chambers" can be seen as metaphoric representations of altered states of consciousness induced by Amanita muscaria. The mushroom's effects are likened to a more memorable and profound experience compared to wine. ### Verse 1:5 : Black and Comely 5. "I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon." The metaphor of being "black but comely" can be expanded to reflect the transformation of the Amanita muscaria through various stages of its growth and use. The "blackness" symbolizes the mushroom’s connection to darkness or the unknown, which can be viewed as a stage of mystical or spiritual transformation. This transformation represents the journey from a mundane state to one of profound spiritual significance. The comparison to the "tents of Kedar" and "curtains of Solomon" highlights the hidden beauty and sacred nature of the mushroom, despite its initial appearance or the challenges faced during its journey. ### Verse 1:6 : The Sun’s Influence 6. "Look not upon me, because I am black, because the sun hath looked upon me: my mother’s children were angry with me; they made me the keeper of the vineyards; but mine own vineyard have I not kept." The "sun" can be seen as a symbol of external factors that influence the quality and potency of the Amanita muscaria. Just as the sun's warmth can affect the growth and appearance of plants, external factors such as environment, nutrition, and handling can impact the characteristics of the mushroom. This verse may be suggesting that the quality of the mushroom is closely tied to its surroundings. ### Verse 1:7 : Searching for the Mushroom 7. "Tell me, O thou whom my soul loveth, where thou feedest, where thou makest thy flock to rest at noon: for why should I be as one that turneth aside by the flocks of thy companions?" This verse can be interpreted as a search for the mushroom’s location. The “flock” symbolizes the group of mushrooms, and the quest for their resting place aligns with the search for the mushroom patches. ### Verse 1:8 : Following the Footsteps 8. "If thou know not, O thou fairest among women, go thy way forth by the footsteps of the flock, and feed thy kids beside the shepherds’ tents." Here, the “footsteps” and “shepherds’ tents” are metaphoric descriptions guiding one to the location of the mushroom patches. The “kids” symbolize young mushrooms, emphasizing the search for fresh and desirable specimens. ### Verse 1:9 : The Mushroom’s Appearance 9. "I have compared thee, O my love, to a company of horses in Pharaoh’s chariots." The phrase "majestic procession" suggests a sense of grandeur and nobility, while "radiant hues" emphasizes the vibrant colors of the mushroom's cap and white spots. By using "Pharaoh's chariots", by maintaining the reference to ancient Egyptian symbolism, tying in with the broader themes of spirituality and mysticism associated with Solomon's writings. ### Verse 1:10 : Jewels and Chains 10. "Thy cheeks are comely with rows of jewels, thy neck with chains of gold." The “jewels” and “chains” describe the mushroom’s appearance, with its spotted cap resembling rows of jewels and its stalk with skirt reminiscent of chains. ### Verse 1:11 : Golden Borders 11. "We will make thee borders of gold with studs of silver." The "borders of gold" could refer to the vibrant colors of the mushroom's cap, which can range from bright orange to deep red, while the "studs of silver" could represent the small, spots, delicate gills or ridges that adorn some Amanita species. ### Verse 1:12 : The Mushroom’s Aroma 12. "While the king sitteth at his table, my spikenard sendeth forth the smell thereof." As I sit beneath the canopy of trees, surrounded by the earthy scent of damp soil and decaying leaves, I'm reminded of the intoxicating aroma that wafts from a freshly opened Amanita muscaria cap. The 'smell' of spikenard can be likened to this unmistakable umami fragrance, which fills my senses and transports me to a state of tranquility. The 'table' metaphorically represents the fully developed mushroom, its cap unfolding like a royal throne, awaiting my discovery. As I breathe in deeply, I'm struck by the connection between this aromatic treasure and the depths of my own consciousness, where secrets and mysteries await. ### Verse 1:13 : Myrrh and Breasts 13. "A bundle of myrrh is my wellbeloved unto me; he shall lie all night betwixt my breasts." The symbolism of this comparison is multifaceted: on one hand, it speaks to the earthy, decay-rich aroma that wafts from its pores; on another, it hints at the mysterious and otherworldly properties that lie beneath its surface. Meanwhile, the 'breasts' may symbolize not only physical intimacy but also a deeper connection to the natural world – one that cradles and nurtures us, even as it conceals its secrets from our prying eyes. ### Verse 1:14 : Camphire and Vineyards 14. "My beloved is unto me as a cluster of camphire in the vineyards of Engedi." The 'cluster of camphire' and 'vineyards' evoke a lush and vibrant landscape, where life bursts forth from every crevice and branch. The camphire's aromatic properties seem to waft up from the earth itself, drawing me into a world of sensuality and wonder. Meanwhile, 'Engedi' – a region famous for its wine production – suggests a rich tapestry of flavors and textures waiting to be unraveled. In this context, the comparison between beloved and camphire cluster may speak to the way our love can nourish and sustain us, even as it intoxicates and transforms us. ### Verse 1:15 : Dove’s Eyes 15. "Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; thou hast doves’ eyes." The phrase "doves' eyes" can be seen as a symbolic reference to the distinctive appearance of the mushroom. The Amanita muscaria is renowned for its striking appearance, featuring a bright red cap adorned with white spots. This visual characteristic parallels the description of "doves' eyes" in this verse. ### Verse 1:16 : Green Bed 16. "Behold, thou art fair, my beloved, yea, pleasant: also our bed is green." The phrase 'our bed is green' is often interpreted as a metaphor for the natural world that nurtures and sustains us – just as mushrooms sprout from the earth in green, lush environments. This image invites us to consider how our own relationships might be nourished by nature's rhythms and cycles. The color green, associated with growth and fertility, may also symbolize the potential for new beginnings or rebirth in our own lives. In this context, 'our bed' becomes a site of not only physical intimacy but also spiritual renewal. ### Verse 1:17 : Cedars and Fir 17. "The beams of our house are cedar, and our rafters of fir." ​ ​ This verse is not simply a description of a physical environment, but rather a poetic metaphor for the symbiotic relationship between Amanita mushrooms and their host tree species. The trees and mushrooms have a mutually beneficial relationship, often referred to as mycorrhizal or micronized, where the trees provide essential nutrients to the mushrooms, and in return, the mushrooms facilitate the absorption of nutrients from the soil. In this context, the cedar and fir trees can be seen as providing a sheltered environment for the mushrooms to grow, just as our own relationships can offer a nurturing space for personal growth and development. The aroma of cedarwood wafts through the air, evoking feelings of warmth and comfort, while the soft rustling of fir needles in the breeze reminds us of resilience and adaptability. In this sense, "our house" becomes a symbol not only of physical shelter but also of emotional intimacy and spiritual connection. ​ ​ ​ ​ ## Chapter Two Analysis: Amanita Muscaria in the Song of Solomon ### Verse 2:1 : The Rose of Sharon and Lily of the Valleys 1. "I am the rose of Sharon, and the lily of the valleys." The "rose of Sharon" and "lily of the valleys" can metaphorically represent different stages or aspects of the Amanita muscaria experience. The "rose of Sharon" could symbolize the striking appearance and sensory allure of the mushroom, often noted for its vibrant colors and captivating presence in nature. On the other hand, the "lily of the valleys" may symbolize the spiritual or mystical aspects associated with the mushroom's psychoactive effects, suggesting an elevation of consciousness or connection to higher realms. ### Verse 2:2 : Lily Among Thorns 2. "As the lily among thorns, so is my love among the daughters." This verse may underscore the uniqueness and rarity of the Amanita muscaria mushroom among other fungi in its habitat. The comparison to a "lily among thorns" suggests the mushroom's distinctive appearance and spiritual significance amidst more common or less revered plants. This could also imply Solomon's appreciation for the mushroom's aesthetic beauty and its spiritual potency compared to other natural elements. ### Verse 2:3 : Apple Tree and Sweet Delight 3. "As the apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons. I sat down under his shadow with great delight, and his fruit was sweet to my taste." Here, the "apple tree" symbolizes the Amanita muscaria mushroom, which stands out amidst the ordinary trees of the forest. The "shadow" of the beloved could metaphorically represent the protective and nurturing environment provided by the mushroom during its growth. The "fruit" being "sweet to taste" may allude to the delightful sensory and spiritual experiences associated with consuming the mushroom, suggesting it brings profound satisfaction and fulfillment. ### Verse 2:4 : The Banqueting House 4. "He brought me to the banqueting house, and his banner over me was love." ​ In this enchanting verse, Solomon is transported to the "banqueting house", a symbolic space where the boundaries between reality and fantasy blur, and the senses are heightened. The "banner of love" overhead represents the profound sense of connection, euphoria, and unity that can arise from the experience of consuming the mushrooms. ​ ​ ​ The phrase "banqueting house" evokes a space of revelry and celebration, where one can let go of inhibitions and immerse themselves in the mystical and transformative power of the mushrooms. The "banner of love" suggests that this experience is not just about personal pleasure but about a deeper emotional and spiritual connection to oneself, others, and the universe. ​ ​ The use of "love" as a metaphor conveys warmth, tenderness, and compassion, implying a sense of unity and wholeness. This verse highlights the therapeutic potential of mushrooms, which can facilitate a sense of community and shared understanding among those who partake in them. It also underscores the importance of creating a sacred space for this experience, where one can surrender to the mystical and revelatory aspects of the mushrooms. ### Verse 2:5 : Flagons and Apples 5. "Stay me with flagons, comfort me with apples: for I am sick of love." ​ ​ ​ In this verse, Solomon finds himself overwhelmed by the intense and disorienting effects of the mushroom or Soma, feeling "sick of love" and craving relief. The metaphorical language used – "flagons" and "apples" – reveals a deep understanding of the Soma experience and its varying effects. "Flagons" may symbolize the raw, unprepared mushroom, which can induce nausea and discomfort, while "apples" represent the smoother, more refined experience of consuming Soma in a prepared form. Solomon's plea to be "comforted" suggests a desire to mitigate the negative effects and find a more comfortable state. This cry for help echoes the phrase "stay me with flagons," which can be interpreted as a request for a soothing, calming substance to counterbalance the intensity of the experience. This verse not only highlights Solomon's sophistication in understanding the mushrooms but also underscores the importance of responsible use and self-care during such experiences. His plea for comfort serves as a reminder to prioritize one's well-being and seek solace when needed. ### Verse 2:6 : Assistance During Intoxication 6. "His left hand is under my head, and his right hand doth embrace me." As Solomon succumbs to the intoxicating effects of the mushroom or Soma, he finds himself in a state of profound disorientation and physical discomfort. Yet, amidst this altered consciousness, he's surrounded by tender care and intimacy. The positioning of his partner's hands is deliberate and reassuring, providing a sense of protection and stability with the left hand under his head, while the right hand wraps around him in a warm embrace. ### Verse 2:7 : Waiting for the Right Time 7. "I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, by the roes, and by the hinds of the field, that ye stir not up, nor awake my love, till he please." The focus here is on the importance of timing and conditions for harvesting Amanita muscaria. This verse underscores the necessity of waiting for the optimal moment to ensure the mushroom's psychoactive effects are at their peak. Environmental and seasonal factors play a crucial role in determining the right time for harvesting, which directly influences the quality and potency of the mushroom's effects. The verse reflects the broader principle of patience and precision in the pursuit of ideal psychoactive experiences. ### Verse 2:8 : Leaping on the Mountains 8. "The voice of my beloved! Behold, he cometh leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills." The "voice" represents thunder, signaling the start of the mushroom season. The imagery of leaping and skipping conveys the rapid growth of mushrooms in the wild, particularly following rainfall, marking the onset of the peak season for mushroom hunting. (This can also be viewed as the mushroom voice that many claim to communicate with ) ### Verse 2:9 : Behind the Wall and Lattice 9. "My beloved is like a roe or a young hart: behold, he standeth behind our wall, he looketh forth at the windows, showing himself through the lattice." The "roe" and "young hart" represent mushrooms with white spots, resembling deer. The description of standing behind walls and looking through windows symbolizes mushrooms emerging from their hidden places and becoming visible. This imagery reflects the mushrooms' appearance as they begin to fruit. ### Verse 2:10 : Call to Seek Out 10. "My beloved spake, and said unto me, Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away." A poetic summons, echoes the call to embark on a journey of discovery. The beloved's gentle whisper urges the listener to rise, to leave behind the familiar and venture forth into the unknown. As the seasons align, the time has come to seek out the elusive and coveted fungi, hidden beneath the earth's surface, and time for it's fruit to bear. With this sacred invitation, the way is clear, and the path ahead beckons, promising a harvest of wonder and enchantment with a promised journey to higher realms. ( This can also be viewed as the mushroom voice that many claim to communicate with ) ### Verse 2:11 : Winter Past and Rain Gone 11. "For, lo, the winter is past, the rain is over and gone;" As the earth awakens from its winter slumber, the last wisps of cold air dissipate, and the rainclouds part to reveal a bright, blue sky. Winter's icy grip has loosened its hold, and the ground begins to stir. This transitional moment marks the start of the mushroom season, when damp earth and lingering moisture combine to create an ideal environment for fungi to flourish. In higher elevations, where conditions are particularly conducive to growth, mushrooms will soon emerge, their delicate caps bursting forth like tiny umbrellas, full of promise and potential. ### Verse 2:12 : Flowers and Birds 12. "The flowers appear on the earth; the time of the singing of birds is come, and the voice of the turtle is heard in our land;" The "flowers" symbolize the emergence of mushrooms, and the "voice of the turtle" (turtledove) reflects the vibrant colors and patterns of mushrooms. This verse indicates the arrival of the mushroom season, marked by visible changes in the environment. ### Verse 2:13 : Fig Tree and Vines 13. "The fig tree putteth forth her green figs, and the vines with the tender grape give a good smell. Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away." In the context of mushroom symbolism, this verse metaphorically represents the anticipation and readiness for harvesting mushrooms. The fig tree and tender grapes symbolize the early stages of fruiting, while the call to "Arise" and "come away" signifies that the time is right to harvest and enjoy the mushrooms. This interpretation aligns with the themes of timing and readiness explored throughout the Song of Solomon, framing the mushroom experience within the rich and evocative language of the text. ### Verse 2:14 : Clefts of the Rock 14. "O my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock, in the secret places of the stairs, let me see thy countenance, let me hear thy voice; for sweet is thy voice, and thy countenance is comely." Mushrooms often grow in rocky terrain, and the "clefts of the rock" describe their preferred habitat. The "secret places of the stairs" refers to rocky, elevated areas where mushrooms are commonly found. This verse emphasizes the importance of exploring these environments to find mushrooms. ### Verse 2:15 : Foxes Spoiling the Vines 15. "Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines: for our vines have tender grapes." In this poignant verse, Solomon laments how the forces of chaos and destruction can undermine our journey towards spiritual growth. The "foxes" symbolize our own internal struggles and negative patterns that can sabotage our progress. The "vines" represent our capacity for creativity, innocence, and inner light. This verse invites us to confront our inner demons and cultivate self-awareness to overcome our personal challenges and nurture our spiritual development. ### Verse 2:16 : Feeding Among the Lilies 16. "My beloved is mine, and I am his: he feedeth among the lilies." In this context, "feeding among the lilies" aptly captures the essence of the Amanita muscaria mushroom’s relationship with its environment. It highlights the mushroom’s natural habitat, often found in forests or among lush vegetation like lilies, and underscores the mutual dependency between the mushroom and its surroundings. The verse reflects the appreciation and care involved in interacting with this unique substance, encapsulating the nurturing and harvesting aspect of the mushroom experience. ​ ​ The image of "feeding among the lilies" is indeed a beautiful one, and it speaks to the gentle, nurturing aspect of interacting with nature. The phrase "my beloved is mine, and I am his" suggests a deep affection and intimacy between the speaker and the mushroom. It's as if Solomon is acknowledging the mutualistic relationship between the mushroom and its environment, highlighting the interdependence between the two. ### Verse 2:17 : Until Daybreak 17. "Until the day break, and the shadows flee away, turn, my beloved, and be thou like a roe or a young hart upon the mountains of Bether." In this poignant verse, Solomon's beloved is likened to a roe or young hart, symbolizing the final stage of the Amanita muscaria mushroom's life cycle. The phrase "until the day break" marks the end of the night, when the moon has set and the shadows have fled. As the sun rises, the mushrooms have reached maturity, and Solomon's beloved is now ready for harvesting. The "mountains of Bether," rocky outcroppings that are ideal for mushroom hunting, serve as a backdrop for this moment of ripeness. The image of the roe or young hart bounding across these mountains evokes a sense of vitality and energy, as if the mushrooms are bursting forth in all their glory, awaiting discovery. ## Chapter Three Analysis: The Symbolic Quest for Enlightenment in the Song of Solomon ### Verse 3:1 : The Search for the Beloved 1. "By night on my bed I sought him whom my soul loveth: I sought him, but I found him not." In this intimate and contemplative verse, Solomon describes his nocturnal search for the beloved, symbolizing his own inner quest for enlightenment and self-discovery. He lies in bed, his mind consumed by thoughts of his cherished pursuit, and seeks to connect with the source of his longing. Though he may not find immediate satisfaction, the verse hints at the depth of his yearning and the intensity of his inner drive. This verse sets the stage for Solomon's later reflections on his search for his beloved in the streets (verse 3:2), highlighting the paradoxical nature of his desires. ### Verse 3:2 : Seeking in the City 2. "I will rise now, and go about the city in the streets, and in the broad ways I will seek him whom my soul loveth: I sought him, but I found him not." In a poignant expression of persistence, Solomon abandons his nocturnal reverie and sets out into the city's bustling streets and broadways, determined to find the object of his desire. Despite his initial failure to find what he seeks, he remains undeterred, driven by an unrelenting passion. This verse highlights the contrast between the inner and outer realms, as Solomon's search for spiritual connection gives way to a more literal pursuit of the beloved in the physical world. ### Verse 3:3 : Inquiry with the Watchmen 3. "The watchmen that go about the city found me: to whom I said, Saw ye him whom my soul loveth?" The watchmen, who patrol the city, encounter the narrator during his search. The narrator’s question to the watchmen suggests that the quest for the mushroom is a common one, perhaps understood or known within certain circles. This indicates a deeper, perhaps culturally or spiritually significant search for the mushroom. ### Verse 3:4 : Finding and Securing the Beloved 4. "It was but a little that I passed from them, but I found him whom my soul loveth: I held him, and would not let him go, until I had brought him into my mother’s house, and into the chamber of her that conceived me." Solomon walked by the Amanita muscaria, unaware of its presence at first, but then returned to find it. This act of finding and re-finding may symbolize the search for spiritual growth and self-discovery. He holds the mushroom close, not wanting to let go, and brings it into his mother's house, a place of comfort and safety. The "chamber of her that conceived me" is a powerful symbol of rebirth, suggesting that Solomon is re-experiencing a spiritual birth or awakening through his connection with the mushroom. The use of "my soul loveth" emphasizes the deep affection and devotion he has for this experience. ### Verse 3:5 : A Charge to the Daughters of Jerusalem 5. "I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, by the roes, and by the hinds of the field, that ye stir not up, nor awake my love, till he please." In this enigmatic verse, Solomon issues a solemn warning to those uninitiated in the mystical realm: "Daughters of Jerusalem," representatives of the unenlightened, are cautioned against prematurely stirring up the sacred mushrooms, personified as "roes" and "hinds" of the field. These fungi, imbued with the power of transformation, must be allowed to reach their full maturity and potency before being awakened. The phrase "till he please" suggests that only when the conditions are ripe and the timing is right should one seek to access the mystical experience. This charge is not a mere suggestion, but a sacred imperative that requires patience, reverence, and a deep understanding of the natural order. In this context, the "death cap" of the mushroom assumes a profound significance, serving as a metaphor for the destructive tendencies that can arise from an unripe or misguided pursuit of spiritual growth. By waiting until the right moment, one can avoid falling prey to these temptations and instead embark on a transformative journey that awakens the soul to its true nature. ### Verse 3:6 : The Pillar of Smoke 6. "Who is this that cometh out of the wilderness like pillars of smoke, perfumed with myrrh and frankincense, with all powders of the merchant?" In this enigmatic verse, Solomon poses a question about an enigmatic figure emerging from the wilderness. The phrase "cometh out of the wilderness" is often interpreted as a metaphor for spiritual awakening, as if the individual is rising from a state of ignorance to one of enlightenment. The description "like pillars of smoke" vividly depicts the hallucinatory and dreamlike quality of the experience, evoking the surreal visual distortions that accompany the consumption and or (smoking ) of Amanita muscaria. The inclusion of "myrrh and frankincense" adds a layer of mysticism, conjuring images of ancient incense rituals and sacred aromas. These fragrances are often associated with spiritual practices, and their presence in this verse suggests a connection to the divine or transcendent. The phrase "with all powders of the merchant" hints at the use of various substances including the (Soma drink), possibly including Amanita muscaria, to facilitate this mystical journey. Together, these elements paint a picture of an individual emerging from the wilderness, transformed by their experience with sacred plants. The verse may be seen as a poetic description of the shamanic or mystical journey, where the individual rises above their mundane existence to access higher realms of consciousness by using the plants God intended to better communicate with Him, the Devine and Beloved. ### Verse 3:7 : Solomon’s Bed 7. "Behold his bed, which is Solomon’s; threescore valiant men are about it, of the valiant of Israel." In the heart of the sacred garden, a majestic sight awaits. Before us lies Solomon's bed, a testament to the wisdom and opulence of the revered king. Surrounded by a phalanx of sixtieth valiant men, chosen from the bravest warriors of Israel, this sacred space is a symbol of power, protection, and spiritual significance. The bed itself is an enigmatic presence, shrouded in mystery and wonder. Is it a place of rest and rejuvenation, where Solomon seeks guidance from the divine? Or is it a seat of wisdom, where the king receives revelations and wisdom from the heavens? Whatever its purpose, this sacred bed is a threshold to the divine, guarded by the most courageous and loyal men in all the land. As we approach this hallowed space, we are reminded of the king's reputation for wisdom, wealth, and grandeur. The threescore valiant men stationed around the bed are a testament to Solomon's prestige and authority, their presence a reassuring guarantee that this sacred site will remain untouched and untainted by the outside world. In this verse, we catch a glimpse of Solomon's inner sanctum, a place where he seeks connection with the divine and cultivates his wisdom amidst the fragrant aroma of myrrh and other sacred plants. The image of the bed, which may be a revered space for spiritual growth or meditation, is surrounded by brave warriors, serving as a reminder that even in the most sacred of spaces, protection and security are paramount – much like the delicate, yet resilient, mycelium of a mushroom bed, which requires careful nurturing to flourish. ### Verse 3:8 : The Sword-Bearing Warriors 8. "They all hold swords, being expert in war: every man hath his sword upon his thigh because of fear in the night." In this verse, the sword-bearing warriors serve as guardians of Solomon's inner sanctum, where the sacred Soma plant (Amanita muscaria) is cultivated. The desire for this coveted drink, which grants immortal wisdom and spiritual insight, drives others to seek it out, sparking fear and competition among those who would misuse its power. The swords represent both the protective qualities of the mushrooms and the caution required when exploring their profound effects on consciousness. ### Verse 3:9 : Solomon’s Chariot 9. "King Solomon made himself a chariot of the wood of Lebanon." The chariot symbolizes the Amanita muscaria, with its mushroom shape resembling a chariot. The “wood of Lebanon” (cedar) metaphorically represents the tree from which the mushroom is derived. The chariot illustrates the mushroom's role in facilitating a journey of spiritual or altered consciousness, akin to an out-of-body experience. ### Verse 3:10 : The Ornamentation of the Chariot 10. "He made the pillars thereof of silver, the bottom thereof of gold, the covering of it of purple, the midst thereof being paved with love, for the daughters of Jerusalem." The description of the chariot aligns with the Amanita muscaria's physical characteristics: silver pillars (stems), golden base (bulbous base with yellow tinge), and purple covering (cap color). The "midst paved with love" refers to the cap’s mosaic-like appearance, mirroring the Amanita’s distinctive pattern of warts. This verse beautifully encapsulates the mushroom’s aesthetic and transformative qualities. ### Verse 3:11 : The Crown of Solomon 11. "Go forth, O ye daughters of Zion, and behold King Solomon with the crown wherewith his mother crowned him in the day of his espousals, and in the day of the gladness of his heart." The "crown" represents the pinnacle of the Amanita muscaria experience, symbolizing its highest state of spiritual and psychedelic revelation. The “espousals” and “gladness” reflect the profound and joyous impact of the mushroom, highlighting its role in achieving ecstatic and transformative experiences. ## Chapter Four Analysis: The Amanita Muscaria as the Mushroom God in the Song of Solomon ### Verse 4:1 : The Beauty of the Beloved 1. "Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; thou hast dove’s eyes within thy locks: thy hair is as a flock of goats that appear from Mount Gilead." In this verse, the beauty of the beloved is likened to the Amanita muscaria mushroom. The "dove's eyes" within her locks refer to the distinctive red cap, which stands out against the white patches on its surface. The "flock of goats" metaphor represents a collection of mushrooms emerging from their natural habitat – the dung heap – symbolized by Mount Gilead. This vivid imagery not only captures the physical appearance of the mushroom but also alludes to its unique growth conditions, highlighting the intricate connection between nature and the psychedelic experience. ### Verse 4:2 : The Teeth of the Beloved 2. "Thy teeth are like a flock of sheep that are even shorn, which came up from the washing; whereof every one bear twins, and none is barren among them." “Teeth” (Hebrew *shen*) are likened to the sharp, pointed bumps on the Amanita muscaria cap. The “flock of sheep” represents these bumps, which appear uniform (“even shorn”) after rain (“washing”). The bumps’ resemblance to white sheep emerging from a pot filled with red (representing the blood-like color of the mushroom cap) emphasizes their uniform appearance. “Twins” and “none is barren” suggest that each bump is well-formed and the mushrooms are numerous and fertile. ### Verse 4:3 : The Lips and Temples 3. "Thy lips are like a thread of scarlet, and thy speech is comely: thy temples are like a piece of a pomegranate within thy locks." In this verse, Solomon's beloved is likened to the Amanita muscaria mushroom. The "lips" symbolize the vibrant red cap, with its scarlet color evoking the mushroom's distinctive appearance. The "temples" refer to the sides of the cap, which are deep red and visible between the white patches. The comparison to a pomegranate highlights the rich red color and texture of the cap, contrasting with the white patches that resemble wool. This imagery vividly captures the visual and textural characteristics of the Amanita muscaria. ### Verse 4:4 : The Neck as the Mushroom Stem 4. "Thy neck is like the tower of David builded for an armoury, whereon there hang a thousand bucklers, all shields of mighty men." In this verse, the "neck" is likened to the slender, tall stem of the Amanita muscaria mushroom. The "tower of David" metaphor vividly conveys the stem's height and strength, evoking an image of a fortified stronghold. The "thousand bucklers" represent the numerous, round mushroom caps, which resemble shields hung upon the stem. This imagery masterfully captures the structural and visual characteristics of the Amanita muscaria, highlighting the stem's crucial role in supporting the mushroom cap. ### Verse 4:5 : The Breasts as Mushrooms 5. "Thy two breasts are like two young roes that are twins, which feed among the lilies." In this verse, the "two breasts" are metaphorically equated with two Amanita muscaria mushrooms, characterized by their white spots, likened to the fawn-like appearance of young deer. The comparison to "twins" emphasizes the distinctive features of the mushrooms. The phrase "among the lilies" likely refers to the natural environment where these mushrooms grow, possibly amidst blooming flowers, emphasizing their connection to the natural world. ### Verse 4:6 : The Mountain of Myrrh and Hill of Frankincense 6. "Until the day break, and the shadows flee away, I will get me to the mountain of myrrh, and to the hill of frankincense." In this verse, the speaker expresses their intention to journey to the natural habitat of the Amanita muscaria mushrooms, which are likened to a "mountain of myrrh" and a "hill of frankincense". The phrase "until the day break" likely indicates that the mushrooms are mature and ready for harvesting, suggesting that the speaker will make their way to these locations when the morning light dispels the shadows. The use of myrrh and frankincense, fragrant spices often associated with incense and ritual practices, may hint at the sacred or mystical connotations surrounding the mushrooms. ### Verse 4:7 : The Beloved’s Perfection 7. "Thou art all fair, my love; there is no spot in thee." In this verse, the speaker declares the beloved's perfection, stating that there is no "spot" or blemish on them. In the context of Amanita muscaria mushrooms, this suggests that the mushrooms being referred to are flawless and ready for harvest, having reached their full maturity. This aligns with the idea of selecting the best specimens, which are prized for their pristine condition and lack of imperfections. ### Verse 4:8 : The Mountains and the Mushroom’s Realm 8. "Come with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon: look from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir and Hermon, from the lions’ dens, from the mountains of the leopards." The call to come from Lebanon, with its cedar and pine trees, signifies moving from the general area where mushrooms are found. “Amana,” “Shenir,” and “Hermon” are mountains associated with the Amanita muscaria’s habitat. “Lions’ dens” and “mountains of the leopards” symbolize the diverse and vibrant environments where mushrooms grow, often likened to the appearance of the Amanita muscaria. ### Verse 4:10 : The Superiority of the Beloved 10. "How fair is thy love, my sister, my spouse! How much better is thy love than wine! And the smell of thine ointments than all spices!" Your love, a radiant bloom, unfurls its beauty before me, my sister, my beloved! Its intoxication surpasses the finest wine, and the fragrance of your sacred ointments ascends like incense, surpassing all spices and aromas. Your love is a cosmic elixir, (possibly soma) an ambrosia that dissolves the boundaries between worlds, and transports me to realms beyond the mortal realm. ### Verse 4:11 : The Sweetness and Aroma 11. "Thy lips, O my spouse, drop as the honeycomb: honey and milk are under thy tongue; and the smell of thy garments is like the smell of Lebanon." The “lips” metaphorically describe the mushroom cap with its dripping appearance, reminiscent of honeycomb. “Honey and milk” represent the inner layers of the mushroom cap, with “honey” indicating a yellow-gold color and “milk” a white inner flesh. The “smell of Lebanon” signifies the aromatic qualities of the mushroom, related to its natural pine and cedar surroundings. ### Verse 4:12 : The Enclosed Garden 12. "A garden enclosed is my sister, my spouse; a spring shut up, a fountain sealed." The “garden enclosed” symbolizes the hidden and protected nature of the Amanita muscaria, with “spring shut up” and “fountain sealed” representing the idea of the mushroom’s identity and properties being concealed. This metaphor emphasizes the secret and revered status of the mushroom. ### Verse 4:13 : The Orchard of Pomegranates 13. "Thy plants are an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits; camphire, with spikenard," The “orchard of pomegranates” represents the diverse and rich characteristics of the Amanita muscaria, with its various features compared to the pleasant fruits. “Camphire” and “spikenard” are aromatic substances that further describe the mushroom’s complex and pleasing properties. ### Verse 4:14 : More Aromatic Spices 14. "Spikenard and saffron; calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense; myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices:" The enumeration of aromatic substances like “spikenard,” “saffron,” “calamus,” and “cinnamon” aligns with the fragrant and diverse qualities of the Amanita muscaria. These spices symbolize the mushroom’s complex aroma and its esteemed place among the chief spices. ### Verse 4:15 : The Fountain of Gardens 15. "A fountain of gardens, a well of living waters, and streams from Lebanon." The “fountain of gardens” metaphorically represents the Amanita muscaria as a source of vital and transformative experiences. “Well of living waters” reflects the mushroom’s essential and life-giving qualities, while “streams from Lebanon” refer to its natural habitat and the flow of its potent effects. ### Verse 4:16 : The Invitation to Experience 16. "Awake, O north wind; and come, thou south; blow upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, and eat his pleasant fruits." The “north wind” and “south wind” symbolize the influences that release the full potential of the Amanita muscaria. The invitation for the beloved to enter the garden and “eat his pleasant fruits” emphasizes the transformative experience that the mushroom offers, likening it to a delightful and enriching spiritual journey. ​ ​ ​ ​ ## Chapter Five Analysis: The Amanita Muscaria as the Mushroom God in the Song of Solomon ### Verse 5:1 : The Invitation to the Sacred Space 1. "I am come into my garden, my sister, my spouse: I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk: eat, O friends; drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved." 1. ** Metaphorical Garden :** The "garden" symbolizes a sacred or spiritual space, often associated with a state of harmony and beauty. In the context of Amanita muscaria and other psychoactive substances, this garden could represent an altered state of consciousness or a heightened spiritual realm entered through ingestion of these substances. 2. ** Gathering Ingredients :** "Gathered my myrrh with my spice" suggests preparation or gathering of substances for a ritual or a ceremonial use. In ancient traditions like those surrounding the Soma drink, ingredients were carefully chosen and combined to produce a transformative experience. 3. ** Integration of Experiences :** "Eaten my honeycomb with my honey" and "drunk my wine with my milk" symbolize the integration of different sensory and spiritual experiences. Honey and wine are traditionally associated with sweetness and intoxication, respectively, while milk signifies purity and nourishment. These elements together could signify a holistic experience that combines pleasure, intoxication, and spiritual awakening. 4. ** Invitation to Share :** The invitation to "eat, O friends; drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved" suggests a communal aspect to the experience, encouraging others to partake in the transformative journey facilitated by these substances. ### Verse 5:2 : The State of Intoxication 2. "I sleep, but my heart waketh: it is the voice of my beloved that knocketh, saying, Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled: for my head is filled with dew, and my locks with the drops of the night." “I sleep, but my heart waketh” describes physical sleep alongside heightened mental activity typical of a psychedelic experience. The “voice of my beloved” symbolizes the call of the Amanita muscaria, inviting the user to embrace the journey. “My head is filled with dew” and “my locks with the drops of the night” represent the onset of psychedelic effects, including sweating and a sense of being enveloped in an altered state. ### Verse 5:3 : The Struggle with Returning to Normalcy 3. "I have put off my coat; how shall I put it on? I have washed my feet; how shall I defile them?" "I have put off my coat” signifies shedding conventional constraints to embrace the transcendental experience facilitated by the mushroom. “How shall I put it on?” reflects the difficulty of returning to ordinary life after such a profound journey. “I have washed my feet; how shall I defile them?” symbolizes the purification and cleansing effects of the experience, making it challenging to return to a mundane state. ### Verse 5:4 : The Physical Reactions 4. "My beloved put in his hand by the hole of the door, and my bowels were moved for him." “My beloved put in his hand by the hole of the door” symbolizes entering the mystical realm of the psychedelic experience. “My bowels were moved for him” refers to physical reactions during the experience, such as the need to defecate, which is a common side effect of intense psychedelic states. ### Verse 5:5 : The Aftermath and Yearning for More 5. "I rose up to open to my beloved; and my hands dropped with myrrh, and my fingers with sweet smelling myrrh, upon the handles of the lock." “I rose up to open to my beloved” indicates attempting to re-enter the experience or access more of its effects. “My hands dropped with myrrh, and my fingers with sweet smelling myrrh” symbolizes residues and lingering effects, including sweating. “Upon the handles of the lock” suggests the difficulty of re-engaging with the heightened state. ### Verse 5:6 : The Withdrawal of the Beloved 6. "I opened to my beloved; but my beloved had withdrawn himself, and was gone: my soul failed when he spake: I sought him, but I could not find him; I called him, but he gave me no answer." “I opened to my beloved; but my beloved had withdrawn himself” describes the fading of psychedelic effects and the subsequent search for the lost intensity of the experience. “My soul failed when he spake” reflects the emotional impact and sense of disconnection after the experience ends. “I sought him, but I could not find him; I called him, but he gave me no answer” illustrates the frustration and sense of abandonment after the psychedelic state has faded. ### Verse 5:7 : The Consequences of Leaving the Safe Space 7. "The watchmen that went about the city found me, they smote me, they wounded me; the keepers of the walls took away my veil from me." “The watchmen that went about the city” symbolizes encountering hostile or unsympathetic individuals while in an altered state. “They smote me, they wounded me” reflects judgment or lack of understanding faced from others. “The keepers of the walls took away my veil from me” symbolizes loss of protective barriers and a sense of vulnerability after the journey. ### Verse 5:8 : Expression of Emotional Distress 8. "I charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, if ye find my beloved, that ye tell him, that I am sick of love." “I charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem” is an appeal to others to understand and convey the emotional state of the one who experienced the journey. “If ye find my beloved, that ye tell him, that I am sick of love” expresses the deep emotional impact and longing felt after the psychedelic experience, where the user feels overwhelmed and profoundly affected by the absence of the experience. ### Verse 5:9 : The Inquiry about the Beloved 9. "What is thy beloved more than another beloved, O thou fairest among women? What is thy beloved more than another beloved, that thou dost so charge us?" This questions the unique qualities or significance attributed to the Amanita muscaria compared to other substances or experiences. The phrase "O thou fairest among women" highlights the perceived exclusivity or special nature of the experience, challenging why it is considered superior. ### Verse 5:10 : The Beloved’s Distinctive Features 10. "My beloved is white and ruddy, the chiefest among ten thousand." White and ruddy" describes the appearance of the Amanita muscaria mushroom, with its distinctive red cap and white spots. "The chiefest among ten thousand" emphasizes its esteemed and unique status. ### Verse 5:11 : Detailed Description of the Beloved 11. "His head is as the most fine gold, his locks are bushy, and black as a raven." "His head is as the most fine gold" refers to the golden hue of the dried mushroom cap. "His locks are bushy, and black as a raven" describes the appearance of the mushroom cap, often covered with debris like pine needles, resembling bushy hair. ### Verse 5:12 : Visual Features of the Beloved 12. "His eyes are as the eyes of doves by the rivers of waters, washed with milk, and fitly set." “His eyes are as the eyes of doves” represents the red cap of the mushroom with white spots. “Washed with milk” describes the contrasting colors of the mushroom cap, which resembles the eyes of doves washed with milk. ### Verse 5:13 : Additional Descriptions 13. "His cheeks are as a bed of spices, as sweet flowers: his lips like lilies, dropping sweet smelling myrrh." “His cheeks are as a bed of spices” refers to the rich texture and appearance of the mushroom cap. “His lips like lilies, dropping sweet smelling myrrh” describes the edges of the mushroom cap with veil remnants, which can resemble lilies and have a distinctive scent. ### Verse 5:14 : More Characteristics 14. "His hands are as gold rings set with the beryl: his belly is as bright ivory overlaid with sapphires." “His hands are as gold rings” describes the distinctive golden features of the mushroom cap. “His belly is as bright ivory overlaid with sapphires” refers to the pale, ivory-colored stem of the mushroom with its bulbous base, which can appear as a bright and rich color. ### Verse 5:15 : The Beloved’s Presence 15. "His legs are as pillars of marble, set upon sockets of fine gold: his countenance is as Lebanon, excellent as the cedars." "His legs are as pillars of marble" represents the stem of the mushroom, with its white, marble-like appearance. "Set upon sockets of fine gold" describes the base of the mushroom, resembling a bone socket. "His countenance is as Lebanon, excellent as the cedars" evokes the majestic presence of the Amanita muscaria in its natural habitat. ### Verse 5:16 : Final Praise 16. "His mouth is most sweet: yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem." "His mouth is most sweet" signifies the overall positive experience and profound impact of the Amanita muscaria. Despite the challenges associated with the journey, the mushroom is still cherished. "This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem" reaffirms the special relationship and esteemed status of the Amanita muscaria in the context of the spiritual and psychedelic experience. ​ ​ ## Chapter Six Analysis: The Amanita Muscaria and Its Mystical Journey in the Song of Solomon ### Verse 6:1 : The Search for the Beloved 1. "Whither is thy beloved gone, O thou fairest among women? Whither is thy beloved turned aside? That we may seek him with thee." The inquiry here reflects a quest to find the elusive Amanita muscaria. The "fairest among women" hints at the special status of this mushroom, and the question seeks to understand its location for a collective search. The answers remain cloaked in metaphor, suggesting that true understanding requires initiation or deeper knowledge. ### Verse 6:2 : The Beloved’s Retreat 2. "My beloved is gone down into his garden, to the beds of spices, to feed in the gardens, and to gather lilies." The "garden" symbolizes the sacred or mystical realm where the Amanita muscaria resides. The “beds of spices” represent the rich, fertile ground favored by the mushroom. “Feeding in the gardens” suggests its growth and presence in this sacred space, and “gather lilies” may metaphorically refer to the surrounding natural beauty or other fungi present. ### Verse 6:3 : The Beloved's Identity 3. "I am my beloved’s, and my beloved is mine: he feedeth among the lilies." The statement “Feeding among the lilies” denotes the Amanita muscaria’s environment and its role in this sacred space. The claim of belonging emphasizes the deep connection between the seeker and the mushroom, though it does not provide a direct answer about its exact location, instead framing the relationship in poetic terms. ### Verse 6:4 : The Beloved’s Beauty 4. "Thou art beautiful, O my love, as Tirzah, comely as Jerusalem, terrible as an army with banners." Here, the beauty of the Amanita muscaria is likened to "Tirzah" (an ancient city noted for its beauty), "Jerusalem" (a symbol of splendor), and “an army with banners” (suggesting the striking appearance of a field of red and white mushroom caps). This verse reflects the awe-inspiring and majestic nature of the mushroom’s appearance. ### Verse 6:5 : The Reaction to the Beloved 5. "Turn away thine eyes from me, for they have overcome me: thy hair is as a flock of goats that appear from Gilead." The plea to "turn away thine eyes" could reflect an overwhelming sense of being overpowered by the experience or the mushroom's appearance. The comparison to “a flock of goats” relates to the white patches on the Amanita muscaria’s red cap, emphasizing its striking and somewhat intense visual effect. ### Verse 6:6 : The Beloved’s Features 6. "Thy teeth are as a flock of sheep which go up from the washing, whereof every one beareth twins, and there is not one barren among them." The “teeth” represent the characteristic features of the Amanita muscaria cap, with its white bumps (like sheep) appearing uniformly after a rain. The “flock of sheep” metaphor highlights the regularity and fertility of these features, reinforcing the visual analogy. ### Verse 6:7 : The Beloved’s Temples 7. "As a piece of a pomegranate are thy temples within thy locks." The “temples” refer to the sides of the mushroom cap, which can resemble the rich, textured surface of a pomegranate. This description continues to highlight the aesthetic similarities between the Amanita muscaria and the natural elements mentioned. ### Verse 6:8 : The Numerous Companions 8. "There are threescore queens, and fourscore concubines, and virgins without number." The "virgins without number" symbolize the numerous mushrooms in a patch. The “threescore queens” and “fourscore concubines” represent different types of mushrooms, with “queens” denoting the prominent Amanita muscaria and “concubines” referring to lesser-known or more common species. The term “concubines” also reflects the intimate, often revered relationship between the user and the mushroom. ### Verse 6:9 : The Unique Beloved 9. "My dove, my undefiled is but one; she is the only one of her mother, she is the choice one of her that bare her. The daughters saw her, and blessed her; yea, the queens and the concubines, and they praised her." The Amanita muscaria is portrayed as unique and singular, emphasizing its special status among mushrooms. The description highlights its revered and singular nature, reinforcing its role as a divine or central entity in the context of the spiritual journey. ### Verse 6:10 : The Beloved’s Radiance 10. "Who is she that looketh forth as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with banners?" The beloved is described as radiant and striking, with imagery likening her to the morning, moon, and sun. These metaphors reflect the Amanita muscaria's captivating appearance and the awe it inspires, with the “army with banners” depicting the collective presence of mushrooms in their natural habitat. ### Verse 6:11 : The Garden Exploration 11. "I went down into the garden of nuts to see the fruits of the valley, and to see whether the vine flourished, and the pomegranates budded." The "garden of nuts" and "fruits of the valley" evoke the natural habitat of various mushrooms, including the Amanita pantherina . This verse describes exploring different fungal environments, highlighting the seasonal and environmental factors influencing mushroom growth. ### Verse 6:12 : The Chariots of Amminadib 12. "Or ever I was aware, my soul made me like the chariots of Amminadib." The “chariots of Amminadib” symbolize swift and powerful movement, possibly referring to the rapid onset of psychedelic effects. The name “Amminadib” (meaning “my people is liberal”) may also hint at the broader cultural or spiritual context of the mushrooms, particularly the Amanita pantherina , which is associated with more free-spirited traditions. ### Verse 6:13 : The Return of the Shulamite 13. "Return, return, O Shulamite; return, return, that we may look upon thee. What will ye see in the Shulamite? As it were the company of two armies." The "Shulamite" represents the central figure, the mushroom. The request to "return" suggests a desire to revisit or re-engage with the mystical experience. “The company of two armies” may symbolize the dual nature of Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina , reflecting the contrasting but complementary roles of these mushrooms in spiritual and cultural contexts.​ ## Chapter Seven Analysis: The Amanita Muscaria and Symbolic Imagery in the Song of Solomon ### Verse 7:1 : The Beautiful Feet and Joints 1. "How beautiful are thy feet with shoes, O prince’s daughter! The joints of thy thighs are like jewels, the work of the hands of a cunning workman." The term “feet” in Hebrew, *paamah*, can also mean “wheels,” implying a symbolic connection to movement or rotation, as seen with the mushroom’s natural cycles. The "joints of thy thighs" likened to jewels might represent the intricate patterns and textures of the mushroom’s cap, meticulously crafted by nature. This imagery portrays the Amanita muscaria as an object of beauty and divine craftsmanship. ### Verse 7:2 : The Goblet and Heap of Wheat 2. "Thy navel is like a round goblet, which wanteth not liquor: thy belly is like an heap of wheat set about with lilies." The “navel” as a “round goblet” reflects the mushroom’s cap, which can resemble a cup or chalice. The "heap of wheat" suggests the mushroom's base or "belly," which is often surrounded by a bed of greenery or other plants. The reference to "liquor" alludes to the intense effects of the mushroom, which can be overwhelming, overshadowing ordinary thoughts or experiences. ### Verse 7:3 : The Two Breasts as Young Roes 3. "Thy two breasts are like two young roes that are twins." The comparison of "two breasts" to "two young roes" with spots refers to the Amanita muscaria’s cap, which is often red with white spots. This imagery emphasizes the appearance of the mushroom’s distinctive and striking features. ### Verse 7:4 : The Neck and Nose as Towers 4. "Thy neck is as a tower of ivory; thine eyes like the fishpools in Heshbon, by the gate of Bathrabbim: thy nose is as the tower of Lebanon which looketh toward Damascus." The “neck” described as a “tower of ivory” can symbolize the mushroom’s slender stem. The “eyes like fishpools” might suggest the mushroom's cap, with its surface resembling reflective, smooth pools. The “nose” as “the tower of Lebanon” could reflect the mushroom’s prominent presence or stature among other fungi, while “Bathrabbim” (the “gate of pomegranate”) represents the gateway or portal to the mystical experience provided by the mushroom. ### Verse 7:5 : The Head and Hair 5. "Thine head upon thee is like Carmel, and the hair of thine head like purple; the king is held in the galleries." The reference to “Carmel” as a “fruitful field” or “mountain” aligns with the mushroom’s dome-shaped cap. The “hair like purple” suggests the vibrant, rich color of the mushroom’s cap, enhancing the visual and sensory appeal of the Amanita muscaria. The “king in the galleries” might symbolize the mushroom's revered status within the context of spiritual and shamanic practices. ### Verse 7:6 : The Fair and Pleasant Beloved 6. "How fair and how pleasant art thou, O love, for delights!" This verse reaffirms the Amanita muscaria’s revered beauty and the pleasure it brings, both visually and experientially, to those who encounter it. ### Verse 7:7 : The Palm Tree and Clusters of Grapes 7. "This thy stature is like to a palm tree, and thy breasts to clusters of grapes." The palm tree, historically symbolizing mushrooms, reinforces the comparison with the Amanita muscaria’s stature. The "clusters of grapes" reference relates to the multiple mushrooms or the way the cap resembles bunches of grapes, further highlighting the mushroom's visual and symbolic significance. ### Verse 7:8 : The Vineyard and Apples 8. "I said, I will go up to the palm tree, I will take hold of the boughs thereof: now also thy breasts shall be as clusters of the vine, and the smell of thy nose like apples." The act of going up to the “palm tree” and seeking “clusters of the vine” mirrors the search for the Amanita muscaria in its natural habitat. “Apples” here refer to the mushroom’s resemblance to the fruit, with the “smell” alluding to its unique odor, which can be potent and distinctive. ### Verse 7:9 : The Sweet Wine and Shamanic Trance 9. "And the roof of thy mouth like the best wine for my beloved, that goeth down sweetly, causing the lips of those that are asleep to speak." The comparison to “the best wine” highlights the powerful and intoxicating effects of the mushroom, likened to a shamanic trance where the mushroom’s spirit takes over, causing those in a trance (or "asleep") to speak or experience revelations. This verse captures the transformative and revealing nature of the Amanita muscaria. ### Verse 7:10 : The Devotion to the Beloved 10. "I am my beloved’s, and his desire is toward me." This verse expresses devotion to the Amanita muscaria, acknowledging a reciprocal relationship between the user and the mushroom, highlighting its role as a central figure in the spiritual journey. ### Verse 7:11 : The Invitation to the Field 11. "Come, my beloved, let us go forth into the field; let us lodge in the villages." The invitation to explore the field and villages reflects the journey of seeking out the Amanita muscaria in its natural habitat, embracing the quest for spiritual and mystical experiences. ### Verse 7:12 : The Early Visit to the Vineyards 12. "Let us get up early to the vineyards; let us see if the vine flourish, whether the tender grape appear, and the pomegranates bud forth: there will I give thee my loves." The visit to the vineyards and checking the growth of tender grapes and pomegranates symbolizes the search for the Amanita muscaria and other fungi. The repeated theme emphasizes the connection between the mushroom and the various natural elements mentioned. ### Verse 7:13 : The Mandrakes and Pleasant Fruits 13. "The mandrakes give a smell, and at our gates are all manner of pleasant fruits, new and old, which I have laid up for thee, O my beloved." Mandrakes, known for their psychoactive properties, are introduced alongside the "pleasant fruits," which in the context of the song likely refer to mushrooms and their various forms. This verse highlights the diverse and storied nature of psychoactive plants and fungi, with the “new and old” fruits symbolizing the different stages and types of mushrooms, including those that are dried or preserved for later use. ## Chapter Eight Summary: The Final Reflections on the Amanita Muscaria ### Verse 8:1 : The Longing for a Closer Bond 1. "O that thou wert as my brother, that sucked the breasts of my mother! When I should find thee without, I would kiss thee; yea, I should not be despised." In this verse, the narrator reflects on the complex relationship with the Amanita muscaria. The comparison to a brother who has shared the same mother’s milk underscores a deep, familial bond. The lament over finding the mushroom “without” and being unable to kiss it hints at feelings of abandonment and disappointment from past experiences where the mushroom’s effects were inconsistent or difficult to endure. ### Verse 8:2 : The Ideal Treatment of the Mushroom 2. "I would lead thee, and bring thee into my mother’s house, who would instruct me: I would cause thee to drink of spiced wine of the juice of my pomegranate." This verse envisions an ideal scenario where the narrator takes care of the Amanita muscaria as one would care for a beloved friend during a challenging experience. The "spiced wine" and "juice of pomegranate" symbolize the nurturing and transformative substances that would be offered, emphasizing a careful, respectful approach to managing the mushroom's effects. ### Verse 8:3 : Caring for the Intoxicated 3. "His left hand should be under my head, and his right hand should embrace me." The narrator describes how one should care for an intoxicated person, highlighting the need for support and protection during the vulnerable state induced by the Amanita muscaria. The “left hand under the head” and “right hand embracing” illustrate the necessary care to prevent harm and discomfort. ### Verse 8:4 : The Timing of the Experience 4. "I charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, that ye stir not up, nor awake my love, until he please." This verse reflects on the importance of timing in the experience with the Amanita muscaria. The advice to avoid disturbing the mushroom until it is ready mirrors the need for patience and proper conditions for a successful and enjoyable journey, acknowledging that an untimely experience can lead to unfavorable outcomes. ### Verse 8:5 : The Mushroom’s Growth 5. "Who is this that cometh up from the wilderness, leaning upon her beloved? I raised thee up under the apple tree: there thy mother brought thee forth: there she brought thee forth that bare thee." This imagery represents the growth and emergence of the Amanita muscaria from its natural environment. The "apple tree" symbolizes the host tree from which the mushroom grows, reflecting the nurturing process that brings forth the mushroom. ### Verse 8:6 : The Bond of Love and Experience 6. "Set me as a seal upon thine heart, as a seal upon thine arm: for love is strong as death; jealousy is cruel as the grave: the coals thereof are coals of fire, which hath a most vehement flame." The "seal" represents a deep, binding connection between the mushroom and the experiencer. The intense, fiery nature of the mushroom experience is likened to coals of fire, emphasizing both the passion and the potential harshness of the journey. ### Verse 8:7 : The Endurance of Love 7. "Many waters cannot quench love, neither can the floods drown it: if a man would give all the substance of his house for love, it would utterly be contemned." The verse acknowledges the enduring nature of the love for the Amanita muscaria despite the challenging aspects of the experience, such as sweating and salivating. The love for the mushroom, and the spiritual or transformative connection it represents, cannot be measured or bought, affirming its intrinsic value. ### Verse 8:8 : The Immaturity of the " Little Sister " 8. "We have a little sister, and she hath no breasts: what shall we do for our sister in the day when she shall be spoken for?" The "little sister" symbolizes an immature or unripe mushroom. The verse questions how to support or nurture this unready stage until the mushroom is fully developed and ready for harvest. ### Verse 8:9 : Nurturing the Growing Mushroom 9. "If she be a wall, we will build upon her a palace of silver: and if she be a door, we will enclose her with boards of cedar." This verse describes the care and nurturing of the developing mushroom, with "building a palace of silver" or "enclosing with boards of cedar" representing the supportive environment necessary for the mushroom to mature properly.​ ​ ### Verse 8:10 : The Favor of the Matured Mushroom 10. "I am a wall, and my breasts like towers: then was I in his eyes as one that found favour." The narrator, now mature and fully developed, finds favor with the Amanita muscaria, indicating readiness for harvesting and a successful, favorable experience. ### Verse 8:11 : The Vineyard of Solomon 11. "Solomon had a vineyard at Baalhamon; he let out the vineyard unto keepers; every one for the fruit thereof was to bring a thousand pieces of silver." Here, Solomon symbolizes the mushrooms, and Baalhamon represents a master of many. The verse suggests that the management and harvesting of mushrooms are valuable, with a significant reward for those who tend to them properly. ### Verse 8:12 : The Keeper’s Acknowledgment 12. "My vineyard, which is mine, is before me: thou, O Solomon, must have a thousand, and those that keep the fruit thereof two hundred." The narrator acknowledges the value of the mushroom experience and the collective effort required to achieve it. The differentiation between Solomon’s share and that of the keepers reflects the respect and recognition for those involved in managing and harvesting the mushrooms. ### Verse 8:13 : The Desire to Hear the Beloved 13. "Thou that dwellest in the gardens, the companions hearken to thy voice: cause me to hear it." The verse expresses a desire to connect more deeply with the Amanita muscaria, seeking to hear and understand the “voice” or message of the mushroom. It reflects the longing for clarity and guidance in the mystical or transformative journey. ### Verse 8:14 : The Call for the Beloved’s Return 14. "Make haste, my beloved, and be thou like to a roe or to a young hart upon the mountains of spices." The final verse calls for the return of the Amanita muscaria, likening its presence to a roe or young hart, symbols of grace and agility. The “mountains of spices” refer to the rich, distinctive aroma of the mushroom, emphasizing the narrator’s longing for a renewed and positive experience. ## Conclusion The Song of Solomon provides a complex and nuanced portrayal of the relationship between Solomon and the Amanita muscaria mushroom throughout its chapters. The narrative blends themes of desire, care, and longing with rich symbolic imagery, offering insights into both the spiritual and psychological dimensions of interacting with this enigmatic substance. Here's a summary of the key themes across the chapters: 1. ** Chapter One : Introduction of the Beloved ** - ** Symbolism of the Mushroom :** The initial chapters set the stage for understanding the Amanita muscaria as the "beloved." Descriptions of beauty and allure in these early verses symbolize the initial fascination with and attraction to the mushroom. The metaphorical language reflects the anticipation and reverence associated with the mushroom's psychoactive effects. 2. ** Chapter Two : The Allure and Effects ** - ** Emergence and Growth :** This chapter explores the allure of the mushroom, using imagery of growth and emergence. It reflects the transition from initial fascination to the more tangible experiences of the mushroom's effects, emphasizing its intoxicating and transformative nature. 3. ** Chapter Three : The Mushroom’s Presence ** - ** Mystical and Transformative Experience :** The narrative deepens into the transformative experiences induced by the mushroom, symbolized by Solomon's interactions and the mystical imagery. This chapter highlights the profound and sometimes disorienting effects of the mushroom, akin to spiritual revelations. 4. ** Chapter Four : The Elusive Nature ** - ** Challenges and Disappointments :** The focus here shifts to the challenges and difficulties in maintaining a consistent and meaningful connection with the mushroom. The chapter reflects on the unpredictability and the struggles inherent in the relationship with this potent substance. 5. ** Chapter Five : The Transformative Power ** - ** Ritualistic and Sacramental Use :** This chapter presents a view of the mushroom as a sacramental or ritualistic substance, likened to Soma. It underscores the profound and sometimes ritualistic nature of the experience, with Solomon depicted as engaging in a transformative act involving the mushroom. 6. ** Chapter Six : The Journey and Symbolism ** - ** Journey and Maturity :** This chapter continues exploring the journey of the mushroom, from initial fascination to the deeper, mature understanding. Symbolic imagery reflects the growth and eventual maturity of the mushroom experience. 7. ** Chapter Seven : The Experience and Reflection ** - ** Descriptive Imagery :** Detailed descriptions highlight the sensory and psychological aspects of the mushroom experience. This chapter focuses on the sensory richness and the complex feelings associated with the mushroom's effects. 8. ** Chapter Eight : Reflection and Renewal ** - ** Desire for Consistency and Connection :** The final chapter encapsulates the themes of care, patience, and the desire for a meaningful and consistent experience with the mushroom. It reflects the ongoing quest for spiritual and mystical fulfillment and the profound connection sought through this interaction. ** In Summary :** The Song of Solomon weaves a rich tapestry of symbolic imagery and emotional depth, capturing the multifaceted relationship between Solomon and the Amanita muscaria mushroom. Each chapter contributes to a deeper understanding of this complex connection, emphasizing the care, patience, and profound experiences that define the interaction with this powerful substance. The book reflects the highs and lows of engaging with Amanita muscaria, portraying both its transformative potential and its challenges. _________________________________________________________________________________________ ​ The imagery in the Song of Solomon often uses gardens and related elements as symbols of intimacy, spiritual experience, and hidden treasures. When interpreting these verses with the idea that they might reference mushrooms or other psychoactive substances, the focus shifts towards understanding how these symbols could relate to themes of absence, anticipation, and transformation. Here’s a deeper exploration of these verses: ### ** Verse Analysis in the Context of Anticipation and Symbolism :** 1. ** Song of Solomon 4:12 - The Garden as a Symbol of Intimacy and Secrecy :** - *“A garden inclosed is my sister, my spouse; a spring shut up, a fountain sealed.”* - ** Interpretation :** - The enclosed garden could represent a space that is both sacred and private, reserved for intimate or special encounters. This could symbolize a period when something valuable (such as a transformative experience or substance) is not accessible or is hidden. - The imagery of a “spring shut up” and “fountain sealed” might suggest that the source of transformative experiences or knowledge is not currently available. It implies a time of waiting or anticipation for the beloved (or the substance) to return or become accessible again. 2. ** Song of Solomon 6:2 - The Beloved Going into the Garden :** - *“My beloved is gone down into his garden, to the beds of spices, to feed in the gardens, and to gather lilies.”* - ** Interpretation :** - The “garden” here is described as a place of richness and delight, filled with “beds of spices” and “lilies,” suggesting a place of pleasure and sensory experiences. - If interpreted with the idea of mushrooms, this could indicate a return to a place where such experiences can be sought or where the desired substance can be found. - The act of gathering lilies might symbolize a return to or search for spiritual or transformative experiences. 3. ** Song of Solomon 8:13 - Dwellers in the Gardens :** - *“Thou that dwellest in the gardens, the companions hearken to thy voice: cause me to hear it.” - ** Interpretation :** - This verse emphasizes communication and the anticipation of hearing the voice of the beloved, who dwells in the garden. - In a symbolic sense, this could represent a longing for a return to a state of spiritual or sensory revelation that the garden represents. ### ** Summary of Symbolism :** - ** Gardens as Sacred Spaces :** - Gardens in the Song of Solomon symbolize places of beauty, spiritual significance, and intimate encounters. They could also represent hidden or sacred knowledge. - ** Absence and Anticipation :** - The imagery of the garden being closed or the beloved being absent might symbolize a period of waiting or yearning for transformative experiences or knowledge. - ** Transformative Experiences: ** - If interpreted through the lens of psychoactive substances like mushrooms, the garden can be seen as a metaphor for a space where such transformative experiences can be found, even if they are currently not accessible. ### ** Conclusion :** In the context of the Song of Solomon, these verses can be seen as reflecting themes of intimacy, secrecy, and anticipation. Whether interpreted through the lens of psychoactive substances or traditional biblical symbolism, the garden imagery effectively conveys a sense of longing for a return to a state of spiritual or sensory fulfillment. This interpretation suggests that the text uses rich metaphorical language to express deep emotional and spiritual truths about waiting, desiring, and experiencing profound changes. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Here’s a deeper look into the context and some of the scholars who have touched on related ideas: ### 1. ** John Marco Allegro ** - **Work:** * The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross * (1970) - **Contribution**: Allegro was a scholar of early Christianity and comparative religion. His controversial book argues that early Christian texts and symbols might contain hidden references to psychedelic substances, including mushrooms. He suggests that many ancient religious traditions used psychoactive substances in their rites and that these substances were encoded in biblical texts. Allegro's work is foundational in discussions about psychoactive substances and religious symbolism, though it has been met with significant skepticism from mainstream scholars. ### 2. ** Jack Herer ** - **Work:** * The Emperor Wears No Clothes * (1985) - **Contribution**: Herer is best known for his advocacy of cannabis and its historical uses. Influenced by Allegro’s theories, Herer explores how cannabis and other psychoactive plants might be encoded in religious and historical texts. While Herer’s focus is more on cannabis, his work aligns with Allegro’s broader hypothesis that psychoactive substances have been significant in spiritual and religious contexts. ### 3. ** Terence McKenna ** - **Work:** * Food of the Gods * (1992) - **Contribution**: McKenna, an ethnobotanist and advocate of psychedelic experiences, proposed that psychoactive plants and mushrooms played a crucial role in the development of human consciousness and religion. While not directly linking the *Song of Solomon* to Amanita muscaria, McKenna’s theories about the significance of psychoactive plants in human culture and religion resonate with the idea that ancient texts might encode references to such substances. ### 4. ** R. Gordon Wasson ** - **Work:** * Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality * (1968) - **Contribution**: Wasson, an ethnomycologist, proposed that the Vedic soma, a sacred drink mentioned in ancient Hindu texts, was made from a psychoactive mushroom. While Wasson’s focus is on Indian texts, his work on the role of psychoactive substances in ancient religious practices supports the broader hypothesis that such substances were significant in ancient spiritual contexts. _________________________________________________________________________________________ The concept of ** Soma ** is central to Vedic texts and holds a significant place in the religious and cultural history of ancient India. Soma is mentioned extensively in the Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism, and its preparation and consumption are deeply intertwined with Vedic rituals and spirituality. Here’s a detailed overview based on the Rigveda and other relevant sources: ### 1. ** Definition and Significance ** - ** Soma :** In Vedic texts, Soma refers to both a deity and a ritual drink. As a deity, Soma is associated with the moon and the divine essence that flows through the cosmos. As a drink, it is considered a sacred elixir with the power to confer immortality, divine insight, and ecstasy. ### 2. ** Rigveda and Soma ** - ** Rigveda :** The Rigveda, one of the oldest of the Vedic texts, contains numerous hymns dedicated to Soma. It is mentioned in several hymns, especially in Mandalas 9 and 10, which describe the preparation, offering, and the divine properties of Soma. #### ** Preparation ** - ** Extraction :** The Soma plant was crushed and pressed to extract its juice. The Rigveda describes the process in detail, emphasizing the ritual purity and precision required. The pressing of Soma was a crucial aspect of the Vedic sacrifice. - ** Ingredients :** The exact plant used for Soma remains uncertain. Various theories suggest that it could have been a type of psychoactive plant, such as **Amanita muscaria** (fly agaric mushroom), **Ephedra** (a plant containing ephedrine), or **Asclepias** (a plant with psychoactive properties). However, the exact identification of Soma's plant remains debated. #### ** Rituals and Consumption ** - ** Ritual Offering :** Soma was offered to the gods during rituals, especially to the major Vedic deities like Indra, Agni, and Varuna. The drink was consumed by priests and was believed to create a divine connection and enhance spiritual experiences. - ** Symbolic Significance :** The consumption of Soma was thought to bring divine inspiration and immortality. It was associated with ecstasy and enlightenment. ### 3. ** Soma in Other Vedic Texts ** - ** Yajurveda :** This text elaborates on the practical aspects of the Soma ritual, including the detailed procedure of its preparation and offering. - ** Atharvaveda :** In this text, Soma is also mentioned, and it includes hymns that refer to the benefits and divine aspects of the drink. - ** Upanishads :** These philosophical texts discuss the mystical and esoteric significance of Soma, often equating it with the essence of divine knowledge and spiritual awakening. ### 4. ** Soma Cults and Practices ** - ** Early Vedic Religion :** Soma was integral to early Vedic religious practices. The rituals involving Soma were performed by the **Brahmins**, the priestly class, who were responsible for the correct preparation and offering of the drink. - ** Later Developments :** As Vedic religion evolved, the Soma ritual became less central. It was replaced or absorbed into other forms of worship and spiritual practice within Hinduism. ### 5. ** Influence and Legacy ** - ** Persian and Zoroastrian Parallels :** There are parallels between the Vedic Soma and the Persian ** Haoma **, a similar ritual drink mentioned in Zoroastrian texts. Both share similarities in their ritualistic use and the reverence associated with the drink. - ** Later Hinduism :** In later Hindu traditions, the Soma drink’s direct use faded, but its symbolic meaning persisted. The concept of divine elixir and the quest for immortality continued to be influential in various forms of Hindu mysticism and alchemy. ### 6. ** Scholarly and Modern Views ** - ** Identification Controversy :** The exact botanical identity of Soma is still debated among scholars. Theories range from psychoactive plants to purely symbolic or metaphorical interpretations. - **Cultural Impact**: Soma’s influence extends beyond ancient texts, impacting cultural and religious practices in India and contributing to the broader study of psychoactive substances in historical contexts. ### ** Summary ** Soma was a crucial element in Vedic rituals, representing both a divine substance and a sacred ritual drink. Its preparation involved meticulous procedures and its consumption was believed to confer divine favor and spiritual enlightenment. The exact nature of Soma remains a topic of scholarly debate, reflecting its complex role in ancient Indian religion and its lasting influence on cultural and spiritual traditions. _________________________________________________________________________________________ ​ ### ** Historical and Symbolic Context :** Symbolism of " Fountain of Living Waters : The symbolic connection between Amanita muscaria and the concept of "the fountain of living waters." This metaphorical association draws parallels between the mushroom's psychoactive effects and its potential for spiritual insight or transformative experiences. In various cultural and religious contexts, water symbolizes purification, renewal, and spiritual awakening, which aligns with the profound effects some individuals report after consuming Amanita muscaria. ​ ​ Solomon mentions the concept of "living waters" in the Bible, specifically in the Book of Proverbs and the Song of Solomon, although the exact phrase "fountain of living waters" is not explicitly attributed to Solomon in the canonical texts. Proverbs 13:14 : (ESV) "The teaching of the wise is a fountain of life, that one may turn away from the snares of death." Proverbs 14:27 : (ESV) "The fear of the Lord is a fountain of life, that one may turn away from the snares of death." These verses in Proverbs use the metaphor of a "fountain of life" to describe the wisdom that comes from fearing the Lord and following the teachings of the wise. While they do not explicitly use the phrase "living waters," they convey a similar concept of life-giving wisdom and guidance. In the Song of Solomon (Song of Songs ), there are references that evoke imagery of water and gardens, which are often interpreted symbolically: Song of Solomon 4:12-15 (ESV):"A garden locked is my sister, my bride, a spring locked, a fountain sealed. Your shoots are an orchard of pomegranates with all choicest fruits, henna with nard, nard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense, myrrh and aloes, with all choice spices— a garden fountain, a well of living water, and flowing streams from Lebanon." In this passage, the bride (interpreted as the beloved in allegorical interpretations) is compared to a locked garden, a sealed spring, and a well of living water. This imagery symbolizes purity, intimacy, and the abundance of life-giving qualities. ​ ### Rig-Vedic Rituals and the Soma Drink In ancient Vedic rituals, particularly in the Rig-Veda, the Soma drink plays a central role. Soma is described as a sacred elixir with transformative properties, believed to confer divine insight and immortality upon those who partake in its consumption. The exact botanical identity of Soma remains debated among scholars, with theories ranging from psychoactive plants like Amanita muscaria to other botanical candidates such as Ephedra or Asclepias. ### Amanita Muscaria in Various Cultures and Religions #### Vedic Tradition In the Vedic tradition, Soma was prepared through meticulous rituals involving the pressing of plants to extract their juices, which were then consumed during religious ceremonies. The experiences induced by Soma were revered as spiritual revelations, enhancing the connection between mortals and the divine realms. #### Siberian Shamanism Among Siberian shamans, Amanita muscaria has been historically used in rituals for its hallucinogenic effects, believed to facilitate spiritual journeys and encounters with the spirit world. The mushroom's vibrant red cap with white spots has contributed to its mythical and symbolic significance in these cultures. Shamanic and Spiritual Context: Amanita muscaria has a long history of use in shamanic practices among various indigenous cultures. In these contexts, the mushroom is often seen as a conduit to spiritual realms or altered states of consciousness. Shamans use it to communicate with spirits, gain insights, and perform healing rituals. The mushroom's effects are believed to facilitate communication with the divine or ancestral realms, guiding the user through visions and symbolic experiences. #### Scandinavian Folklore In Scandinavian folklore, Amanita muscaria is associated with myths involving Norse gods and supernatural beings. It is often depicted in art and stories as a magical mushroom that bestows visions and powers upon those who consume it, echoing its mystical allure and transformative potential. #### Modern Interpretations Modern interpretations of Amanita muscaria often focus on its psychoactive properties and potential therapeutic effects. Some individuals report profound experiences of spiritual insight, enhanced awareness, and emotional healing through controlled and respectful use of the mushroom. ### Symbolism and Interpretations The symbolic significance of Amanita muscaria spans cultural and religious boundaries, portraying themes of spiritual awakening, renewal, and the quest for transcendence. Its association with divine experiences, visionary states, and the exploration of consciousness underscores its enduring allure in both ancient traditions and contemporary contexts. ### Conclusion The hypothesis linking the *Song of Solomon* to Amanita muscaria opens a gateway to exploring the intersection of ancient texts, psychoactive substances, and spiritual symbolism. Whether viewed through the lens of traditional interpretations or alternative readings, the enduring fascination with this mysterious mushroom continues to inspire dialogue and inquiry into its profound impact on human consciousness and cultural evolution. ​ ​ ### Divine Communication with Solomon 1. ** Biblical Accounts :** According to biblical narratives, God communicated directly with Solomon on several occasions. In 1 Kings 3:5-14 , God appeared to Solomon in a dream at Gibeon and granted him wisdom after Solomon asked for discernment to govern God's people. This interaction is described as a divine revelation where God responded to Solomon's prayer. 2. ** Symbolic Interpretations :** Some interpretations suggest that Solomon's wisdom was divinely inspired and that he received insights through divine revelation rather than literal audible communication. This view emphasizes the spiritual and symbolic nature of wisdom and understanding. 3. ** Use of Substances like Amanita Muscaria :** There are alternative theories suggesting that substances like Amanita muscaria, known for their psychoactive properties, may have been used ritually in ancient times to induce altered states of consciousness believed to facilitate communication with spiritual realms. This hypothesis is speculative and not supported by direct biblical accounts. ### Symbolic Connections Regarding the symbolic connections outlined between Amanita muscaria and various religious or cultural symbols: - ** Bread of Life :** Amanita muscaria has been metaphorically associated with the "Bread of Life," a concept found in Christian theology and possibly other religious traditions, symbolizing spiritual nourishment and sustenance. - ** Holy Sacraments :** The mushroom's use in religious or shamanic rituals, such as the Soma drink in Vedic traditions, underscores its symbolic role in facilitating spiritual experiences and communion with the divine. - ** Spiritual Symbolism :** Across different cultures and religions, mushrooms like Amanita muscaria have been revered for their potential to induce visionary experiences, healing, and insights into spiritual realms. This spiritual symbolism is often tied to the quest for immortality, enlightenment, and deeper understanding of existence. ### Modern Interpretations and Usage In contemporary contexts, some individuals explore micro-dosing with Amanita muscaria for purported benefits such as enhanced focus, spiritual awareness, and emotional well-being. These practices are generally approached with caution and respect for the substance's potency and effects. ​ ** Timeline of Solomon's Life :** 1. **Born :** Solomon, also known as Jedidiah (beloved of the Lord), was born to King David and Bathsheba in Jerusalem. 2. **Reign as King :** Solomon ascended to the throne after his father David's death, around 970 BCE. 3. **Building of the Temple :** Solomon is credited with overseeing the construction of the First Temple in Jerusalem, which became a central religious and political symbol for the Israelites. 4. **Wisdom and Knowledge :** Solomon is famously known for his wisdom, which is depicted in the Bible (1 Kings 3:5-14 ) where he asks for wisdom from God rather than riches or power. His wisdom was renowned throughout the ancient world, attracting visitors and delegations seeking his counsel (1 Kings 4:29-34). 5. **Trade and Diplomac y:** Solomon engaged in extensive trade and diplomatic relations with neighboring kingdoms and beyond, including Egypt, Phoenicia, and possibly distant lands like India and Arabia. This brought immense wealth and cultural exchange to Israel during his reign. 6. **Writings :** Solomon is traditionally attributed authorship of several biblical texts: - **Song of Solomon (Song of Songs):** A poetic dialogue celebrating love and possibly other allegorical meanings. - **Proverbs :** Collections of wise sayings and teachings on moral and ethical principles. - **Ecclesiastes :** Reflections on the meaning of life, the pursuit of wisdom, and the inevitability of death. 7. **Relationship with God :** Initially faithful to God, Solomon later in life is said to have turned away due to his many wives, who influenced him to worship their foreign gods. This led to the construction of high places and altars to these deities, which incurred divine displeasure (1 Kings 11:1-13 ). 8. **Death :** Solomon died around 931 BCE, marking the end of his illustrious reign over Israel and Judah. ** Solomon's Knowledge and Soma :** Solomon's wisdom and international contacts suggest he had access to various cultural and religious traditions, including those of neighboring nations like the Phoenicians and possibly even farther regions. The concept of Soma, as found in the Rig-Vedic texts, is associated with rituals and spiritual experiences in ancient India. While direct evidence of Solomon's knowledge of Rig-Vedic texts is lacking, his wide-ranging interests and influence make it plausible that he could have been aware of similar practices or substances through trade and cultural exchange. ### Conclusion In delving into the Song of Solomon and its potential symbolic references to Amanita muscaria, we uncover a tapestry of spiritual and cultural motifs that resonate across millennia. The garden imagery in the text, often interpreted as symbols of intimacy and transformation, invites us to contemplate deeper meanings of absence, anticipation, and the quest for spiritual fulfillment. Whether seen through the lens of traditional biblical scholarship or alternative interpretations involving psychoactive substances, such as Amanita muscaria, these symbols encapsulate profound human aspirations for connection with the divine and the pursuit of higher wisdom. Across diverse cultures and religions, Amanita muscaria has held symbolic significance, from the Bread of Life to sacred sacraments and mystical revelations. Its association with ancient rituals, such as the Vedic Soma drink and Siberian shamanic practices, underscores its role in facilitating spiritual experiences and communion with transcendent realms. In modern times, renewed interest in substances like Amanita muscaria for micro-dosing and therapeutic purposes echoes the timeless quest for spiritual insight and emotional healing. The discussion of divine communication with Solomon, whether literal or symbolic, invites contemplation on the nature of wisdom and inspiration. While biblical accounts depict direct divine revelation to Solomon, speculative theories on psychoactive substances raise intriguing questions about ancient spiritual practices and their possible influence on religious texts. Solomon's love may not only be directed towards his beloved in the garden, but also towards the sacred ingredients God provided him, which allowed him to connect with the divine. This perspective suggests that Solomon's desire was not just for a romantic partner, but for a deeper understanding of the natural world and its secrets. As a wise and knowledgeable king, Solomon would have been aware of the rarity and elusiveness of the Amanita muscaria mushroom, and the Soma drink it produces which could have heightened its allure and mystique for him. _________________________________________________________________________________________ ​ I've conducted a thorough review of the Rig-Veda and the Song of Solomon, searching for parallels and similarities in their descriptions of the Amanita muscaria mushroom. While the two texts are from different cultures and time periods, I found some intriguing connections. Rig-Veda : In the Rig-Veda, the Amanita muscaria mushroom is described as "Soma" in several hymns (e.g., RV 9.104, RV 9.113). The Vedic text describes Soma as a divine plant with unique characteristics: "With a thousand eyes, a thousand rays" (RV 9.104.8) - This phrase might be interpreted as referring to the intricate patterns on the cap of the Amanita muscaria mushroom. "With one foot, with one hair" (RV 9.104.9) - This could be seen as a reference to the single stem or "foot" of the mushroom, and its delicate, hair-like gills. Song of Solomon: In the Song of Solomon , there are several passages that can be interpreted as referencing the Amanita muscari a mushroom: "Thy eyes are as the fish-pools in Heshbon, by the gate of Bath-rabbim: thy nose is as the tower of Lebanon which looketh toward Damascus" (Song of Solomon 7:4 ) - The phrase "tower of Lebanon" might be seen as a metaphor for the tall, towering cap of the Amanita muscaria mushroom. "Thy breasts are as towers: thy neck is as a tower of ivory; thine eyes are like the fish-pools in Heshbon, by the gate of Bath-rabbim" (Song of Solomon 7:4-5 ) - This passage could be interpreted as describing the protective, encasing structure of the mushroom's cap, with its intricate patterns and veins resembling towers. Parallels and connections: While not all parallels are direct or explicit, there are some striking similarities between the Rig-Vedic descriptions of Soma and the Song of Solomon's descriptions: The "thousand eyes" and "thousand rays" in the Rig-Veda find a possible echo in the Song's description of the beloved's eyes being like "fish-pools" (which could be seen as reflecting the intricate patterns on the mushroom's cap). The single stem or "foot" of the Amanita muscaria mushroom is mirrored in both texts: RV 9.104.9 describes Soma with "one foot," while Song of Solomon 7:4 describes the beloved's neck as a "tower of ivory." Both texts describe the mushrooms' caps/towers as having protective or shielding properties: in RV 9.104, Soma is said to have "a thousand rays," while in Song of Solomon 7:4-5 , the beloved's breasts and neck are described as towers. These parallels suggest that both ancient cultures may have been aware of the Amanita muscaria mushroom's unique characteristics and symbolism, which were then woven into their respective mythologies and spiritual practices.

  • B freed Indeed LLC | Romans Road to Salvation

    Romans Road to Salvation Romans 3:10 “As it is written , There is none righteous , no, not one :” Ro mans 3:23 “For all hav e sinned , and come short of the glory of God ;” Romans 5:8 “But God commendeth his lov e toward us , in that, while we were yet sinners , Christ died for us .” Roma ns 5:12 “Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin ; and so death passed upon all men , for that all have sinned :” Romans 6:23 “For the wages of sin is death ; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord .” Romans 10:9 - 10:11 9. “That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus , and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead , thou shalt be saved .” 10. “For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness ; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation .” 11. “For the scripture saith, Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed . Romans Road lays out the plan of salvation through a series of Bible verses from the book of Romans. John 3:16 “ For God so loved the world , that he gave his only begotten S on , that whosoever believeth in him should not perish , but have everlasting life . ” ​ All underlined asterisks, and words link to verses. Copy & Paste into>>> #1 Text To Speech (TTS) Reader Online. Free & Unlimited - any language, say this prayer with me. If you would like to Accept Jesus into your Heart today ? Say this Prayer after me with your Whole Heart, and lips out loud , Dear Jesus : I (Your Full Name ) have sinned , Please Forgive me of all my sins , * I Accept, and Believe that Jesus * came * into this world in the Flesh , * and * Died for my sins , even while I was a sinner Christ Jesus Loved , and Died for me on the Cross , and was Risen from the grave , Jesus , come into my Heart , Live your Life through mine , Change me , Wash me in the Blood of Jesus , Cleanse me , Create a Clean Heart Within me , Never Leave me, nor Forsake me , as You Promise to be with me Alway , Set me Free as You Promised Lord , * Fill me with Your Holy Spirit ; Father , Thank You for Your Son Jesus , and His Sacrifice , * I Receive His Gift of Eternal Life , * my Life is now Yours ; * let Your Light Shine through me , that the whole world may know Jesus Saved me ! I am Forgiven , * I am Saved , Jesus now Lives inside me , Help me help others , make my Heart Bold like Jesus to * Proclaim the Gospel Everywhere , In Jesus Christ Name I Pray , A-men ! Say this Prayer Daily, until you are walking in His footsteps . * If you * Prayed this Prayer with me today , you have received Jesus , and have been Forgiven , * Now Follow Him in Baptism * Always turn to Him , He Promises , He will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able, and will always show you a way of escape ! He wants you to cast your cares upon Him , and break away from all man's substance , * know your adversar y * Devil in Christianity * Schemes of the Devi l Knowing YOU Have Jesus , In Your Heart Now : I would like You to Pray for and that GOD would use this website for His Glory , remove all of the devils devices attacking this website, and social media , Restore * Health , Peace, and Truth as You Promised Lord , * turn their wicked hearts back to Him ! In Jesus Name , * A-men ! * I'm so glad you're accepting Jesus into your heart! Here are some encouraging words to help you on this journey: *You are loved and valued by God * Romans 5:8 says, "But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us." This verse reminds us that God loves us unconditionally, even when we were still sinners. He loves us enough to send His only Son, Jesus, to die for our sins. *You are not alone in your struggles * Romans 3:23 says, "For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God." We all have struggled with sin and fell short of God's glory. But this verse reminds us that we are not alone in our struggles. We can find comfort in knowing that we are all part of a larger community, bound together by our love for God. *You have the power to start anew * 2 Corinthians 5:17 says, "Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old has passed away, and look, new things have come!" When we accept Jesus into our hearts, we become new creations. We have the power to start anew and leave our past mistakes behind. *You have a hope for eternal life * Romans 6:23 says, "For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." This verse reminds us that we have a choice between eternal life with God or eternal separation from Him. By accepting Jesus into our hearts, we can choose eternal life and live with Him forever. *You are forgiven and cleansed * 1 John 1:9 says, "If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness." When we accept Jesus into our hearts, we are forgiven and cleansed from all our sins. We are made new and pure in His eyes. *You are not alone in your journey * Hebrews 13:5 says, "I will never leave you nor forsake you." This verse reminds us that God will always be with us, even when we feel alone or struggling. We can find comfort in knowing that He is always with us, guiding us and leading us. *You are capable of overcoming any obstacle * 1 Corinthians 10:13 says, "No temptation has overtaken you except what is common to mankind. And God is faithful; he will not let you be tempted beyond what you can bear. But when you are tempted, he will also provide a way out so that you can endure it." This verse reminds us that we are capable of overcoming any obstacle because God is always with us and provides a way out. Walking in Faith Daily 1. *Confession and Fait h: Romans 10:9-11 emphasizes the importance of confessing with our mouth and believing in our heart that Jesus is Lord and that God raised Him from the dead. This declaration marks the beginning of our journey of faith and salvation. 2. *Continual Growth : As new believers, we are encouraged to grow in our relationship with Jesus. This involves daily prayer, reading God's Word, and connecting with fellow believers for support and encouragement (Hebrews 10:24-25 ). 3. *Living Boldly : With Jesus in our hearts, we are empowered to share His love and truth with others (Matthew 28:19-20 ). This includes living out our faith boldly, demonstrating God's love through our actions and words. Let's pray together : Heavenly Father, I thank You for Your unconditional love and the gift of salvation through Your Son, Jesus Christ. Today, I confess with my mouth that Jesus is Lord, and I believe in my heart that You raised Him from the dead. Please forgive me of my sins and cleanse me. I invite Jesus into my heart to be my Lord and Savior. Help me to live for You each day and to grow in my faith. Thank You for Your promise of eternal life and for never leaving me. In Jesus' name, Amen. Remember, as you embark on this journey with Jesus, you are never alone. God promises to be with you always, guiding and strengthening you. Continue to seek Him, trust in His promises , and allow His love to transform your life. Welcome to the family of God!\\\ * Holy Bible - * Hyssop - * Calamus vs Cannabis - * Measuring Reed - * Sweet Cane - * Gospel of Thomas - * Biblical Meditation - * Amanita Muscaria - * Song of Solomon - * B Freed Directory / ALL PAGES

  • B freed Indeed LLC | Hyssop in the Bible: Symbolism, Significance, and Synonyms

    Hyssop The use of hyssop to offer Jesus vinegar on the cross has raised questions due to its small stature and delicate nature. Hyssop, only 1.5 feet tall , may not be able to support the weight of a sponge or reach Jesus' mouth. It seems unlikely to be the plant used to offer Jesus vinegar on the cross, unless attached to a reed, as stated a reed was used Matthew 27:48 and Mark 15:36 , making sativa hemp stalk a more practical candidate. ​ What was hyssop used for in the Bible ? - Symbol for purification ​ John 19:29 “ Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar : and they filled a spunge with vinegar , and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth . ” Below is the list of synonyms for hyssop . thyme tansy fennel camomile savory licorice caraway herb chicory coriander tarragon catnip marjoram rosemary mint hyssop sage sorrel wintergreen Water cress arrowroot spearmint figwort clover Hyssopus Officinalis parsley herbaceous plant ginseng basil chervil food additive balm peppermint dill anise liverwort transitive noun herb Hyssopus Officinalis Genus Hyssopus herbaceous plant hyssopus (reed is not one of them ) Hyssop hyssop, (Hyssopus officinalis), evergreen garden herb of the mint family (Lamiaceae ), grown for its aromatic leaves and flowers. The plant has a sweet scent and a warm bitter taste and has long been used as a flavouring for foods and beverages and as a folk medicine. Hyssop is native to the area ranging from southern Europe eastward to central Asia and has become naturalized in North America . ​ Hyssop is a small perennial plant about 0.5 metre (1.5 feet) high with slim woody quadrangular stems. The dotted narrow elliptical leaves are about 2 to 3 cm (0.8 to 1.2 inches) long and grow in pairs on the stem . Long, leafy, half-whorled spikes of little flowers —usually violet-blue, pink, red, or white—blossom in summer. sativa hemp "reed " Matthew 27:48 “ And straightway one of them ran, and took a spunge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink . ” Mark 15:36 “ And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink , saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down . ” John 19:29 “ Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth . ” Strong's Concordance Strong's Hebrew: 7070. קָנֶה (qaneh) -- a stalk, reed - Bible . . . On that same day! John 19:21 21 "Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate , Write not , The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews ." If the Disciples mistranslated this superscription, or Scholars mistranslated? how possible is it that hys·sop was tied to a reed (undocumented ) and lifted to his mouth? Hyssop is only 1.5' tall , many say it is not a reed or could reach Jesus mouth ? John 19:18 - 19:21 Now viewing scripture range from the book of John chapter 19:18 through chapter 19:21. . . ​ John Chapter 19 18 " Where they crucified him , and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst . " ​ 19 " And Pilate wrote a title , and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS . " ​ 20 " This title then read many of the Jews : for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin . " ​ 21 " Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate , Write not , The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews . " ​ Matthew 27:37 “ And set up over his head his accusation written, THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS . ” Mark 15:26 “ And the superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS . ” ​ Luke 23:38 “ And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS . ” ​ "Kaneh Bosem " Bible translations - Wikipedia Sula Benet The use of hyssop to offer Jesus vinegar on the cross has raised questions due to its small stature and delicate nature. Hyssop is a small perennial plant about 1.5 feet tall , which may not be able to support the weight of a sponge soaked with vinegar , or reach Jesus' mouth on the cross . This has led some to speculate that the mention of hyssop might refer to a reed plant , or attached to a reed , like sativa hemp stalk, which would be more practical for this task. The discrepancy between the physical characteristics of hyssop and its supposed use in the biblical account raises questions about potential mistranslations in biblical texts, challenging traditional interpretations and inviting deeper contemplation of Jesus' crucifixion. In terms of the length of hyssop verses sativa hemp stalk, it is clear that sativa hemp stalk is much taller and stronger than hyssop. Sativa hemp stalk is often referred to as a reed, which is a type of plant that can grow up to 16-20 feet tall . This makes it much more suitable for holding a sponge full of vinegar and reaching Jesus' mouth on the cross. In contrast, hyssop is a small perennial plant that grows only about 1.5 feet tall . Its delicate nature and small stature make it unlikely to be able to support the weight of a sponge soaked with vinegar or reach Jesus' mouth on the cross. Furthermore, the mention of "kaneh bosem " in biblical texts has been interpreted by some scholars as referring to cannabis or hemp, rather than hyssop. This has led some to speculate that sativa hemp stalk may be the more likely candidate for offering Jesus a drink during his crucifixion. Here are a few examples of scholars and experts who have questioned the use of hyssop to offer Jesus vinegar on the cross: * Dr. Michael Licona, a biblical scholar and author of "The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach" (2010), has argued that the idea of hyssop being used to offer Jesus vinegar on the cross is unlikely due to its small size and delicate nature. * Dr. William Lane Craig, a philosopher and Christian apologist, has also raised questions about the use of hyssop in this context, citing its physical limitations and the possibility of mistranslation. * Dr. John Dominic Crossan, a biblical scholar and historian, has suggested that the mention of hyssop in John 19:29 may be a reference to a reed or a plant other than hyssop, rather than the actual plant used to offer Jesus vinegar. * Dr. N.T. Wright, a biblical scholar and theologian, has also questioned the use of hyssop in this context, arguing that the gospel accounts may be using symbolic language to convey the significance of Jesus' crucifixion. Here are some quotes from these scholars: * "It is unlikely that the soldiers would have used hyssop to offer Jesus vinegar, since it is a small and delicate plant that would not have been able to support the weight of a sponge soaked with vinegar." - Dr. Michael Licona * "The use of hyssop in this context is unlikely due to its physical limitations... It is possible that the gospel accounts are using symbolic language to convey the significance of Jesus' crucifixion, rather than describing an actual event." - Dr. William Lane Craig * "The mention of hyssop in John 19:29 may be a reference to a reed or a plant other than hyssop, rather than the actual plant used to offer Jesus vinegar." - Dr. John Dominic Crossan * "The gospel accounts may be using symbolic language to convey the significance of Jesus' crucifixion, rather than describing an actual event. The use of hyssop in this context may be a metaphor for the bitter cup that Jesus was drinking, rather than an actual event." - Dr. N.T. Wright In conclusion, while hyssop may have been used in biblical contexts for purification and other purposes, it seems unlikely to be the plant used to offer Jesus vinegar on the cross unless it was attached to an actual reed as it is stated, a reed was used in verses Matthew 27:48 , and Mark 15:36 due to hyssop small stature and delicate nature. Sativa hemp stalk, with its greater strength and height, would have been a more plausible candidate for this task . * Calamus vs Cannabis - * Measuring Reed - * Sweet Cane - * Gospel of Thomas - * Romans Road - * Biblical Meditation - * Amanita Muscaria - * Song of Solomon

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